Genetics Final Exam Review

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Name_______________________________________ Genetics Final Review Sci _____

 

  1. Why can bacteria and viruses read human genes?
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  3. Having big eyes is a dominant trait. Draw a heterozygous creature. à
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  5. What genotypes result from a hybrid x hybrid mating? Draw a punnett square.
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  7. How does gene therapy work?
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  9. Mendel's principle of dominance says:
  10. Mendel's principle of segregation says:
  11. Mendel's principle of independent assortment says:
  12. What are chromosomes and genes made of? ____________
  13. How many chromosomes are there in every body cell? ______________
  14. How many nucleotide pairs (A=T, C=G) make up a human being? ______________
  15. How many genes code for a human being? ____________________________
  16. How does DNA replication occur? Draw a picture to help you explain.
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  18. When does replication occur?
  19. What are the steps of protein synthesis? List them.
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  21. Who discovered the structure of DNA? ________________________
  22. What is Johann Gregor Mendel's name? Tee hee.
  23. What year was DNA discovered? ____________
  24. T matches with _____ in mRNA and tRNA.
  25. ACG in DNA would pair up with ______________ on the other side of the DNA ladder.
  26. "AAA" on mRNA would pair up with _______________ on tRNA.
  27. In protein synthesis, CAT on the DNA ladder would pair up with ___________ on the mRNA. Then that mRNA would match up with this kind of tRNA __________.
  28. ____________________ link together to make proteins.
  29. How many base letters code for an amino acid? _______________
  30. How many letters make up a "codon"? ________________
  31. Why does the father determine the sex of the baby?
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  33. How does Tay Sachs survive if all affected people with the disease die before they can reproduce?
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  35. Briefly explain the cause and symptoms each disease:
  36. Huntington's Chorea Down's Syndrome
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  38. Hemophilia Cystic Fibrosis
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  40. Draw the offspring in the punnett squares when (bb, ee) mates with (bb, eE)
  41. B= big nose, bb= no nose E= 2 eyes ee= one eye
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  43. Sex-linked diseases are most common in boys because….
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  45. A woman is a carrier of hemophilia (XN Xn) and she marries a healthy male (XNY). What percent of the offspring will have hemophilia?
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  47. Is this a sex-linked disease? Why? Or why not?
  48. Is this disease sex-linked? What must be the genotype of the parents?
  49. If a person with the blood type AB marries a person with a blood type BO, what are the possible blood types of the offspring? Use a punnett square.
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  51. Do all of your inherited traits show on you? Why or why not?
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  53. Could 2 different species mate and produce offspring? Why or why not?
  54. What makes up a nucleotide? ______________________________________________________
  55. What ratio results from a dihybrid x dihybrid mating?

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DEFINE:

"Homozygous" "Homozygous Dominant"

"Homozygous Recessive" "Heterozygous"

"Hybrid" "Gamete"

"Genotype" "phenotype"

"DNA" "Meiosis"

"Homologous pair of chromosomes" "Autosomal"

Is there a difference between the terms: hybrid and heterozygous?

GAMETES

1) How many different kinds of gametes can ( Tt ) make?
2) How many different kinds of gametes can ( Aa ) make?

3) How many different kinds of gametes can ( aA ) make?

4) How many different kinds of gametes can ( DD ) make?

5) How many different kinds of gametes can ( gg ) make?

6) How many different kinds of gametes can ( ee AA ) make?

7) How many different kinds of gametes can ( Hh AA ) make?

8) How many different kinds of gametes can ( Hh Aa ) make?

9) Write the gametes of this creature: ( Bb )

10) Write the gametes of this creature: ( Bb Ee )

11) Write the gametes of this creature: ( BB AA )

12) Write the gametes of this creature: ( BB AA EE )

13) Write the gametes of this creature: ( BB AA Ee )

DNA, GENES AND CHROMOSOMES

1) Why do all chromosomes in your body cells come in pairs?

2) How many chromosomes do you have in your body cells?

3) How many Pairs of chromosomes do you find in your body cells?

4) How many different kinds of chromosomes will you find in your body cells?

5) How many chromosomes do you find in your gametes?

6) As compared to the number of chromosomes in your body cells, why do you find half the number of chromosomes in your gametes?

7) If a cat has 38 chromosomes in its body cells, how many would you find in its gametes?

8) Which is bigger: genes or chromosomes?

9) What are genes and chromosomes made of?

10) What two substances make up the sides of DNA?

11) On what structure do you find genes?

12) What matches with "A" on DNA?

13) What matches with "A" on RNA?

14) Draw the basic structure of DNA--sugar, phosphate, and bases

15) Why do homologous pair of chromosomes split apart during meiosis?

16) What was the name of the monk who figured out basic genetics?

17) If a heterozygous creature mates with a heterozygous creature, what percentage of the young will express the dominant trait?

18) If a Dihybrid breeds with another, what are the resulting ratios?

BREEDING CREATURES WITH ONE PAIR OF GENES:

1 Homozygous Dominant Creature* Homozygous Dominant Creature

2 Homozygous Dominant Creature * Homozygous Recessive Creature

3 Homozygous Dominant Creature * Heterozygous Creature

4 Homozygous recessive creature * Homozygous recessive creature

5 Homozygous recessive creature * Heterozygous creature

6 Heterozygous creature * Heterozygous creature

BREEDING CREATURES WITH TWO PAIRS OF GENES:

Dihybrid marries a Dihybrid:

7) How many types of gametes are produced by a dihybrid?

8) What fraction of 16 will express Both Dominant phenotypes?

9) What fraction of 16 will express only one Dominant phenotype?

10) What fraction of 16 will express only recessive phenotypes?

11) Is the 3:1 ratio for phenotypes still present?

GENETIC DISEASE:

Chromosomal Disease

Autosomal Diseases

Sex-linked Diseases

Down's Syndrome (extra #21 chromosome)

Huntington's Chorea- Dominant

Hemophilia- X-linked recessive

Tay-Sachs- Recessive

Color blindness- X-linked recessive

 

12) Woody Guthrie died of Huntington's chorea, a dominant autosomal disease. His wife's genotype was (hh) and his was (Hh). Draw a punnet square and show me the probability that his children may have the disease.

13) Two carriers of Tay-Sachs, each with a genotype of (Nn), marry and have children. Use a punnet square to show the possible genetic outcomes. Remember, sperm on top and eggs on the left side.

 

14) A man with hemophilia (XnY) marries a normal woman (XNXN) and has a daughter. Draw a punnet square and write the genotype of the daughter. If the couple had had a son, would he have had hemophilia?

 

15) If a carrier female(XNXn) marries a normal man(XNY), what is the chance that her son will have the disease? Draw the punnet square below.

Also: Genetic engineering, gene therapy: What will your future hold?

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